For Z-conductors in series/phase, Avg. emf/phase \[=2f\Phi Z=4f\Phi T\]

R.M.S value of emf/phase \[=1.11\times4f\Phi T =4.44f\Phi
T\]

Equation is for full-pitched and concentrated coils.

Actually available voltage/phase \[=
\boxed{4.44K_pK_df\Phi T}\]

If the short-pitch angle or chording angle is \(\alpha\) degrees (electrical) for the
fundamental flux wave, then for different harmonics \[\boxed{K_p = \cos
\left(n\alpha/2\right)}\] E.g. for \(5^{th}\) harmonic, \(K_p = \cos
\left(5\alpha/2\right)\)

Similarly, distribution factor for different harmonics \[\boxed{K_{d}=\dfrac{\sin \left(n \cdot
m\beta/2\right)}{m\sin \left(n\beta/2\right)}}\]